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Sleep Hormone info

Sleep Hormone info

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Light, melatonin and the sleep-wake cycle:

Blood levels of the pineal hormone melatonin are high at night and low during the day. Its secretion is located by a rhythm-generating system in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, which in turn by light. Melatonin regulates the circadian oscillator is not only, but also acts as a signal darkness, feedback to the oscillator. Melatonin has both a sedative effect, and the ability Entrain wake the sleeping rhythm. It also has an important role in the regulation of body temperature rhythm. Melatonin rhythms so changed, in a variety of disorders of the circadian rhythm. Melatonin treatment has been reported to be effective in treating diseases such as jet lag and delayed sleep phase syndrome.

Melatonin helps jet lag:

Melatonin, a hormone found naturally in the body, is well known that sleep quality and effect was given in different quantities as a remedy for insomnia and sleep problems.

Researchers at the University of Zurich Travel Clinic, Switzerland have shown that melatonin is an effective help travelers overcome jet lag.

Monitoring 320 volunteers, all of whom had more flights than 6-8 time zones, the researchers gave each passenger a four tablets with three different doses of melatonin - 0.5 quick release tablet, 5 mg fast-release formulation, 2-mg - controlled release or placebo.

The passengers were told to take the tablets once daily in the evening four days after a flight to the east and to keep a sleep log.

Of the original 320 subjects, 234 (73.1%) persons were the study. The results showed that the fast release melatonin formulations were more effective than the slow-release formulation with the 5-mg formulation, and showed a marked improvement in the quality of sleep, reduce fatigue and bring about a relaxed state after an intercontinental flight. The lower dose of 0.5 mg was almost as effective as the dose of 5.0 mg, although not quite as powerful.

The report concluded that melatonin is effective as a means to aid sleep and ease jet lag. It should be noted, however, that long-term safety studies are not available.

Source: Comparative study to determine the optimal formulation of melatonin for the alleviation of jet lag. Suhner A, Schlagenhauf P, Johnson R, Tschopp A, Steffen R. Chronobiol Int, 15:655-66, November 1998

Melatonin as a hormone of the pineal gland:

Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pinealocytes in the pineal gland (epiphysis) - a part of the midbrain - of serotonin and controls the day-night rhythm of the human body. Chemically, it is an alkaloid tryptamine structure.
Metabolism.
For incidence of daylight in the eye, the synthesis of melatonin is inhibited in the night (after dark) is more melatonin released into the blood and promotes sleep. 90% of melatonin is metabolized by the liver passage through biotransformation by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases to 6-OH-melatonin and excreted in the form of sulfated (60-70%) or glucuronidation (20-30%) derivatives in the urine.
Physiological correlations
Melatonin and seasonal affective disorder in the winter when daylight holds up just a few hours remain, the mirror during the day increases melatonin. As a result, you may experience fatigue, sleep disorder and winter depression. As a countermeasure, it is recommended to use the short period of daylight for walking. As an alternative, a light therapy in question.
Melatonin is a metabolite of tryptophan metabolism. It is produced in the pineal gland in the gut and the retina of the eye and central pulsatile release under the influence of darkness. Melatonin concentrations rise in the night by a factor of ten, the maximum is reached about three clock in the morning - with a seasonally changing rhythm. The secretion is held back by daylight. The importance of melatonin in jet lag and shift work is well recognized, application of melatonin is controversial in this context. Through the coordination of circadian-rhythmic processes in the body it exerts its effect as a timer. The melatonin-induced sleep phase is a stimulant for the secretion of growth hormone somatotropin. Such chronic disorders cause premature Somatopause. Melatonin effects are more important in its effect as an antioxidant to die, but can not be used therapeutically. Also important is the effect antigonadotrope (reduction of the sex glands), and the turn down of many biological and oxidative processes, it is eighth, particularly when taking melatonin. Especially a reduction (but also an increase) of the mirror effect of melatonin in the blood of sleeping problems or disorders of the sleep-wake rhythm.
A melatonin substitution should occur only after more clearly indicated.
A low melatonin levels may be associated with sleep disorders. With increasing age the body produces less melatonin, the average sleep time decreases and sleep problems occur frequently. Even with shift work and long-distance travel (jet lag) of melatonin can be disrupted by the change in time budget.
Control of melatonin synthesis in the brain

Restful sleep is important for working memory. One of the reasons could be the influence of melatonin on the hippocampus. This region in the brain is important for learning and remembering. By the action of melatonin, the neurophysiological basis of learning and memory, synaptic plasticity, a significant day-night rhythm is subjected.

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5 Methoxytryptamine) is a hormone that is mainly at night by the pineal gland (pineal gland, brain) but also in the retina (retina), the platelets and is produced in the digestive tract. Many organs have receptors for melatonin. Its formation is stimulated by darkness and inhibited by light from the amino acid tryptophan is formed on serotonin.
Melatonin is found not only in the Human Being Shou. quickly but also in all animals and many
Plants.

Effects of Melatonin:

Melatonin may help our cholesterol levels to normal and get to the heart strong.
Melatonin may play an interesting application in the treatment of Down syndrome and Alzheimer's.
Melatonin is often used in rheumatic disease, because it normalizes the immune status.
Melatonin increased the weight of the thymus gland.
Melatonin increases the activity of Thymusdrüsenzellen, it produces more T-cell lymphocytes for the defense.
Melatonin helps to fight viruses.
The damage, the corticosteroids (chronic stress cause) can can be compensated by the administration of melatonin. An overproduction of corticosteroids can shrink the thymus gland.
The intake of zinc can also have positive effects on the immune system and provide an improved immune response.
Melatonin enhances the body's ability to detect and destroy cancer cells.
Melatonin helps the body defend against cancer-promoting substances.
Melatonin prevents cell damage by free radicals.
Psychiatric patients who received the sedative Chlorpromacin have much less breast cancer than the general population - perhaps it is because the Chlorpromacin the melatonin level begins.
Blind women, who typically have higher melatonin levels fall ill, much less a breast cancer.
Melatonin can reduce a rat die growth of prostate tumors by 50%.
Melatonin can penetrate to the nucleus (DNA), some researchers believe, know that melatonin die by DNA from damage by free radicals can preserve.
Melatonin, in combination with chemotherapy significantly reduce the side effects.
Melatonin can be used to distribute and synergistically with analgesics and sedatives in combination with natural opiates endorphins.
Chemotherapeutic agents reach the bone marrow a much less if the mixture is mixed with melatonin - if the chemotherapy is carried out in the evening, she is statistically more effective and less poisonous, was likely to be because to know that the natural melatonin levels are at a record high.
Melatonin normalizes blood cholesterol levels.
High melatonin reduces blood pressure.
Melatonin protects the body against stress-related diseases.
Melatonin helps to prevent heart attack and stroke.
There is evidence, know that melatonin not only the blood fats, but also the sugar levels to normal.

Melatonin Chronopharmacological actions of the pineal gland:

In all mammalian species studied to date, the pineal gland shows a marked circadian rhythm with high activity at night and very low activity during the day as it appears in the output of its hormone melatonin. The pineal is one of the few institutions able to synthesize melatonin, and under normal circumstances, is virtually the only source of melatonin in circulation. Pineal activity is strictly controlled by the light / dark cycle, in such a way that melatonin may convey information to the organism about the duration of the dark phase of the photoperiod. In seasonally breeding species, which shows 24 hours of melatonin secretion pattern of seasonal changes that are crucial in determining the timing of seasonal changes in physical function. In humans, changes in pineal function are important in the jet-lag, shift work and affective disorder. (41 sources.)

Melatonin for sleep:

Melatonin is an excellent natural sedative. Because it sets your body clock again, it treats the causes of the problem, the disturbance of the natural sleep-wake cycle. Consequently, melatonin should correct any type of sleep disorder, insomnia and wake up especially early and frequent.
In all sleep disorders is recommended to take between 1-5 mg of melatonin at bedtime, so that the normal sleep patterns settle down again. Some people will find out, know that a small dose of them enough to sleep well can. Others will need a higher dose. To find out what dose is right for you, we recommend you start you know that with only 3 mg bedtime
Jet lag and sleep disorders

The suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus (diencephalon = = Control of the autonomic nervous system and hormonal system) have melatonin receptors, with the day-night rhythm is controlled. (Weaver et al., 1993). Melatonin is metabolised in the liver and a 6-Sulphatoxy-melatonin in the urine. In many animals, it controls the variations in reproductive and nonreproductiven seasonale metabolism.

Melatonin and other hormones info:

Melatonin is involved in the regulation of many other hormones., Serotonin, testosterone, estrogen, growth hormone, etc.. melatonin receptors are found in many cells and how different brain areas such as the SCN, pars tuberalis, hypothalamus, cerebellum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex in mammals (Mazzucchelli et al. 1996;
The research of the team Pierpaoli and Regelson have shown in numerous animal studies, know that the decline of the pineal gland and all the ensuing consequences for the organism, not an "inevitable" Show, on the contrary, not only stopped, but can even be reversed. Did you "old" mice in which the decline in the pineal gland is already very advanced war, outside of melatonin could find one within a few months, significant changes:
die Zirbeldrüsenfunktion was restored and the body's production of melatonin Stieg again,
the "Altersfell was again shiny and thick,
sexual function turned on again
the immune system to normal rapidly and incipient cancer cells were destroyed successfully, and
normal food intake and digestion were recovered.

Melatonin plays a key role in controlling circadian rhythms (= day / night cycle) and therefore for the asleep and awake. Darkness stimulates the release into the blood and brightness stop its synthesis. Normal melatonin cycles are in the evening due to strong light during the day and Duch interrupted too little light. Jet lag, shift work and poor visibility also interrupt this cycle. Even by low-frequency electromagnetic fields and in old age changes the melatonin production. The ensuing sleep disorders are treated by administration of 0.3 to 8 mg of melatonin, this was usually eliminated.

Melatonin and the female cycle:

Melatonin affects the timing of the Freisetung with the female hormones that control the menstrual cycle.

Melatonin and menopause

Melatonin supports the positive effects of sleep in women during menopause. Even postmenopausal women who use melatonin to regulate sleep should die only a short time, since long-term effects are not yet known.
Melatonin and specific eating disorders
The mirror can melatonin in anorexia (anorexia) may play a role. Abnormally low melatonin values in people with anorexia can cause depression.

Melatonin and cancer

Different studies have found that people with certain types of cancer such as breast cancer, prostate cancer, the best. Lung cancer, kidney cancer, liver cancer types have a low melatonin mirror.
The administration of oral melatonin (10-50 mg daily) improved the effectiveness of other therapies.
Melatonin and cholesterol
Some studies report on the cholesterol and LDL-lowering effect of melatonin.
Melatonin is a hormone insomnia, which regulates the so-called "internal clock" of the people. It is involved in the aging process of the body. So far there is no scientific proof of evidence, know that melatonin as a drug can stop the biological aging process.

Melatonin and pineal gland:

Today we know know that die pineal gland for the production of a number of substances responsible - Melatonin is only one of them.
Melatonin, a single amino acid is chemically synthesized from the Zirbeldrüsenausscheidungen tryptophan, an amino acid, and serotonin, a "messenger" or neurotransmitters. Serotonin is not only one of the precursors for the production of melatonin, but also responsible for a variety of physical activities, such as sleep, smooth muscle contraction and blood platelet function. Overproduction of serotonin (a melatonin deficiency and a) is responsible for certain types of depression and mood disorders. Psychiatric certain drugs, so-called "serotonin inhibitor to reduce" the level of serotonin and stimulate the production of melatonin one.
Epithalamin, which was first isolated by scientists, led by Vladimir Dilman Clock NN Petrov Research Institute of Oncology (study of the tumors and tumors) in St. Petersburg. Its function seems to be that of melatonin are very similar. It is believed two hormones work together synergistically know that this, DH, know that they reinforce each other's effect.
TRH (thyrotropin-stimulating hormone) controls the supply of energy to the body cells. It supports the thyroid function and improves the immune function. It is also used to treat depression.
Vasopressin hat with the control of the margin and milk "to do in breast-feeding mothers. Its distribution is, it seems, is triggered by the crying of the infant.
Prolactin stimulates milk production of one of the nursing mother. As a "bandeknüpfendes" hormone, it helps to calm the baby and to relax, stimulate, and the mother to accept and defend the boys. Prolactin is administered to humans, it usually evokes feelings of peace, tranquility, contentment and affection. While the mother secretes prolactin, it builds strong ties to their child and Experience The first feelings of maternal love.

The Zirbeldrüsenhormon melatonin serves a number of essential tasks for our organism. His natural production but is substantially reduced between the fortieth and fiftieth year of age. This begins the aging process by any arrested decay processes. The exact onset and course of this process varies from person to person and is of different situations, such as inheritance and investments, general constitution, habits, etc.., Beach Life, Skiing, City Breaks.

Melatonin for older Insomniacs:

Changes in sleep patterns are one of the hallmarks of biological aging process. Recently, scientists have reported at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, that the effect of melatonin secretion is associated with sleep disorders in old age. Then study the effects of melatonin replacement therapy in melatonin-deficient elderly insomniacs, were given 2 mg Fast-release melatonin or 2 mg of sustained-release (or placebo) mg two hours before bedtime for 7 days followed by two months of a one sustained-release melatonin per day or placebo.

They found that treatment with 2-mg rapid release or sustained release melatonin, the quality of sleep of elderly insomniacs improved. The analysis showed that sleep was initiating sleep through the fast-release melatonin, while the maintenance was by the continuing melatonin release, and that continued this improvement if the government was sustained to 1-mg-release melatonin deteriorated, but after treatment.

In another study at the E. Wolfson Medical Center in Holon, Israel, the quality of sleep was improved significantly to 12 elderly people, the various drugs for chronic diseases, and complained of insomnia. The subjects received 2 mg per night, followed by controlled release melatonin for three weeks from three weeks placebo, with one week washout period.

The Israeli researchers found that sleep efficiency was significantly greater, and wake time after the beginning of sleep was significantly shorter with melatonin than to placebo. Their conclusion was:
"Melatonin deficiency may play an important role in the high frequency of insomnia among older people. Controlled release melatonin replacement therapy effectively improves sleep quality in this population."

Essential role of melatonin on sleep:

Further evidence for the important role of melatonin on sleep is based on a report in the case of a young child with a pineal gland tumor, was treated at the Rambam Medical Center in Haifa, Israel. The child of the tumor significantly suppressed melatonin secretion, which produced severe sleep disorders. However, if the child was given 3 mg of melatonin every night for two weeks, normal sleep quality has been restored, as judged by objective monitoring of sleep-wake cycles

A number of studies have shown that melatonin has an acute sleep-inducing effect, and indeed already mg in physiological doses between 1 mg and 3. Here the effect of melatonin is more of a general relaxation and attenuated response to environmental stimuli and thus a smooth transition from wakefulness to sleep through characterized as by excessive fatigue and indomitable Schlafdrang. This distinguishes it from the usual synthetic hypnotics
Despite the reports of positive effects enthusiats of melatonin Knowledge of the actual effects of this hormone in humans are still quite small.

The finding that the serum melatonin concentration and sleep quantity and quality decrease with age, leading to the conclusion that a melatonin deficiency is the cause of a Insomie in old age.

Is melatonin safe?:

Melatonin may help to influence this process favorably. The scientist, Dr. Walter Pierpaoli and Dr. William Regelson, and many of their colleagues around the world are convinced, after long years of intensive research by the accuracy of their relevant findings and conclusions. If any of their attempts were any negative side effects after administration of melatonin are found. A simple amino acid Melatonin is not toxic and even doses of 1000 milligrams per day were tolerated by subjects easily.
In the above, we have attempted, probably the most important insights and experiences of the two scientists, Dr. Walter Pierpaoli and Dr. William Regelson, short and simple to summarize. We have here, as mentioned above, as closely as possible to the observations of the authors in their book "Melatonin - the key to eternal youth, health and fitness" (title of American Originals "The Melatonin Miracle", Simon & Schuster, New York 1995) held, without, however, claim to to have all It exhaustively detailed and easily understandable for the layman described aspects on pineal gland and melatonin. This would also not our job and we would on no account your own reading of this book take the tension.

One was a this point, however, quite clear: it is never too late Even if the person dies 45 already passed some time ago just try the regular daily intake of melatonin, Zirbeldrüsenfunktion die back to normal and the natural, endogenous melatonin production to a bring level, corresponding to a much younger body. The logical explanation for the mechanism of this "rejuvenation" results from the described aging processes:
With falling melatonin mirrors a growing shortage of energy produced at the cellular level;
of this lack of energy also affects the pineal gland directly, and promote their calcification;
Shrinking die and return calcified pineal melatonin production further.

A melatonin substitution should occur only after Clear indication:

The suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus (diencephalon = = Control of the autonomic nervous system and hormonal system) have melatonin receptors, with the day-night rhythm is controlled. (Weaver et al., 1993). Melatonin is metabolised in the liver and a 6-Sulphatoxy-melatonin in the urine. In many animals, it controls the variations in reproductive and nonreproductiven seasonale metabolism. .

Melatonin as an antioxidant products:

Melatonin modulates the interaction of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, such as effects of serotonin and the general reaction to stress.
Melatonin is a physiological antioxidant and reacts directly with hydroxyl radicals and peroxide. It is more effective than other antioxidants such as glutathione and vitamin E.
Will continue to die production of many important enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, or glutathione reductase (all protect against cell damage by free radicals) is stimulated. Melatonin also inhibits the NO synthase (NO regulates blood pressure, eg, vasodilation) and disabled Calmudolin (cellular calcium transport protein, the enzyme activated

Melatonin and the female cycle:

Melatonin affects the timing of the Freisetung with the female hormones that control the menstrual cycle.
Melatonin supports the positive effects of sleep in women during menopause. Even postmenopausal women who use melatonin to regulate sleep should die only a short time, since long-term effects are not yet known.
Melatonin and specific eating disorders

Melatonin info:

The mirror can melatonin in anorexia (anorexia) may play a role. Abnormally low melatonin values in people with anorexia can cause depression.
Melatonin and cancer
Different studies have found that people with certain types of cancer such as breast cancer, prostate cancer, the best. Lung cancer, kidney cancer, liver cancer types have a low melatonin mirror. The administration of oral melatonin (10-50 mg daily) improved the effectiveness of other therapies.
Melatonin and cholesterol
Some studies report on the cholesterol and LDL-lowering effect of melatonin.
Melatonin is a hormone insomnia, which regulates the so-called "internal clock" of the people. It is involved in the aging process of the body. So far there is no scientific proof of evidence, know that melatonin as a drug can stop the biological aging process.

Melatonin and hair loss:

can show the results of a pilot study by the Friedrich-Schiller University in Jena for the first time, know that die external application melatonin hair growth in humans affect prices. On what is this hormone effect is unknown. It is believed, know that the beginning of the anagen phase of melatonin in the hair growth cycle stimulated.
Compared with placebo, dummy external use of melatonin resulted in a significant increase in detectable in anagen hairs Hinterhauptsbereich of women with androgenetic alopecia. In women with diffuse hair loss pattern, however, the increased number of anagen hairs in the frontal area significantly under the influence of melatonin.

The Zirbeldrüsenhormon melatonin serves a number of essential tasks for our organism. His natural production but is substantially reduced between the fortieth and fiftieth year of age. This begins the aging process by any arrested decay processes. The exact onset and course of this process varies from person to person and is of different situations, such as inheritance and investments, general constitution, habits, etc.., Beach Life, Skiing, City Breaks.

Melatonin Research info:

The University of Arizona found reduced melatonin know that the growth of human breast cells östrogensensiven tumors up to 78%.
Melatonin may help to influence this process favorably. The scientist, Dr. Walter Pierpaoli and Dr. William Regelson, and many of their colleagues around the world are convinced, after long years of intensive research by the accuracy of their relevant findings and conclusions. If any of their attempts were any negative side effects after administration of melatonin are found. A simple amino acid Melatonin is not toxic and even doses of 1000 milligrams per day were tolerated by subjects easily.
In the above, we have attempted, probably the most important insights and experiences of the two scientists, Dr. Walter Pierpaoli and Dr. William Regelson, short and simple to summarize. We have here, as mentioned above, as closely as possible to the observations of the authors in their book "Melatonin - the key to eternal youth, health and fitness" (title of American Originals "The Melatonin Miracle", Simon & Schuster, New York 1995) held, without, however, claim to to have all It exhaustively detailed and easily understandable for the layman described aspects on pineal gland and melatonin. This would also not our job and we would on no account your own reading of this book take the tension.

One was a this point, however, clearly said it is never too late! Even if the person has already exceeded 45 die some time ago, can be obtained by the regular daily intake of melatonin, Zirbeldrüsenfunktion die back to normal and bring the natural, endogenous melatonin production to a level consistent with a much younger body. The logical explanation for the mechanism of this "rejuvenation" results from the described aging processes:
With falling melatonin mirrors a growing shortage of energy produced at the cellular level;
of this lack of energy also affects the pineal gland directly, and promote their calcification;
Shrinking die and their calcified pineal gland reduces melatonin production further.

If the body is now much outside those fed melatonin, which he would need the energy to ensure at the cellular level again, he will die doing it. The melatonin in the digestive tract, absorbed light (in the digestive tract is too young in the body increased levels found melatonin) and enters the bloodstream into body cells, and in the endocrine glands and also in the pineal gland itself, where it meets again its original mission namely to ensure the energy supply. The production of harmful pyrophosphate is eliminated and replaced by high-energy ATP. The resulting energy allows the mitochondria to renew again and resume their original function. The pineal gland itself regains enough energy to perform their normal work and be able to increase their own production of melatonin

Of course, this process takes some time. But after a few months of taking melatonin will make you even can see a significant and surprising changes.
The melatonin in the digestive tract, absorbed light (in the digestive tract is too young in the body increased levels found melatonin) and enters the bloodstream into body cells, and in the endocrine glands and also in the pineal gland itself, where it meets again its original mission namely to ensure the energy supply.
The production of harmful pyrophosphate is eliminated and replaced by high-energy ATP. The resulting energy allows the mitochondria to renew again and resume their original function. The pineal gland itself regains enough energy to perform their normal work and be able to increase their own melatonin production.!

Melatonin Literature:
L. Domingo M, the role of melatonin in health and disease. Clin Endocrinol 1995, 42:221-234.
2nd O'Brien IAD, Lewin IG, O'Hare JP, et al. Abnormal circadian rhythm of melatonin in diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Clin Endocrinol 1986; 24:359-364.
3rd Tetsuo M, Polinsky RJ, Markey S, KOPIN IJ. Urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin excretion in patients with orthostatic hypotension. Clin Endocrinol Metab 1981; 53:607-610.
4th Li Y, Jiang DH, Wang ML, et al. Rhythms of serum melatonin in patients with spinal cord injury lesions of the breast or cervical cancer, lower back. Clin Endocrinol 1989; 30:47-56.
5th Kneisley LW, Moskowitz MA, Lynch HJ. Cervical spinal cord lesions disrupt the rhythm in the human melatonin excretion. J Neural Transmission 1978:13 (Suppl) :311-323.
6th Sack RL, Lewy AJ, Blood ML, et al. Circadian rhythm abnormalities in totally blind people: incidence and clinical significance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1992; 75:127-134.
7th Folkard S, Arendt J, Aldhouse M, Kennett H. Melatonin stabilizes sleep onset time in a blind man with no transportation of cortisol or temperature rhythms. Neurosci Lett 1990, 113:193-198.
8th Tzischinsky O, PAL I, Epstein R, et al. The importance of timing in melatonin administration in a blind man. J pineal Res 1992, 12:105-108.
9th Reiter RJ. The pineal gland and its hormones in the control of reproduction in mammals. Endocr Rev 1980; 1:109-131.
10th Terzolo M, Revelli A, Guidetti D, et al. Evening administration of melatonin enhances the pulsatile secretion of prolactin, but not of LH and TSH in normally cycling women. Clin Endocrinol 1993, 39:185-191.
11th Petterborg LJ, Rudeen PK. Effects of daily afternoon melatonin administration on body weight and thyroid hormones in female hamsters. J pineal Res 1989; 6:367-373.
12th Laudon M, Yaron Z, N. Zisapel N-(2, 4-dinitrophenyl)-5-Methoxytryptamine, a novel melatonin antagonist: effects on sexual maturation of male and female rats and in oestrous cycles of female rats. J Endocrinol 1988, 116:43-53.
13th Laudon M, Gilad E, Matzkin H, et al. Putative melatonin receptors in human benign prostate tissue. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996; 39:1336-1342.
14th Gilad E, Laudon M, Matzkin H, et al. Functional melatonin receptor in human prostate epithelial cells. Endocrinology 1996, 137:1412-1417.
15th Welker HA, Semm P, Willig RP, et al. Effects of an artificial magnetic field on serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity and melatonin content in the rat